CHRONOLOGY OF THE FORT ST. GEORGE
1599 -- The East India Company established in England by 24 merchants - importers to seek the bounties of the East.
1600 -- Queen Elizabeth's charter granting the East India Company monopoly to trade with India for 15 years.
1626 -- The Company established a factory in Surat and another in Machilipatnam.
1639 -- Francis Day, an English trader and representative of the Company received a grant of land from Venkatadri Nayak of Poonamalee to erect a trading outpost, which grew into Fort St. George. (The Nayak of Poonamalee was a vassal of the Raja of Chandragiri, the representative of the Vijayanagar King).
1640 -- A trading outpost of the factory erected with in the first enclosure of the 'inner walls'. Beri Thimappa, the chief merchant, established Black Town, a settlement of weavers and other natives, to the north of this walled enclosure. The Fort of Madras named as Fort St. George.
1646 -- The Raja of Chandragiri dethroned by the Mohammedan Sultan of Golconda,who assumed sovereignty of Hyderabad and the Carnatic.
1648 -- The Company secured a fresh title from Golconda, to their possessions.
Mid-1600 -- An outer wall constructed around the growing White Settlement.
1680 -- St. Mary's Church built within the Fort.
1687 -- The Sultan of Golconda dethroned by the Mughal Emperor, Aurangazeb. He gave control of Hyderabad, the capital of Golconda, to a Nizam or Mughal Viceroy and the Carnatic, that included the entire southeastern part of India, to a Nawab answerable to the Viceroy. The capital of the Carnatic being Arcot, the Nawab was called the Nawab of Arcot. The Company secured another title to their possessions from the representative of the Emperor.
1694-95 -- Old Fort House was replaced by a new one that still remains at the core of the present Secretariat.
1700-07 -- A protective mud wall built around Old Black Town.
1711 -- Removal of the inner walls surrounding the Fort House, its rubble used to form the Fort Square.
1746 -- French siege and capture of Madras.
1746-49 -- The French destroyed part of Black Town for security reasons. Battle of the Adyar River between the French and the Nawab's troops, the French won and occupied Santhome.
1749 -- Quarrel for supremacy between two princes of the Carnatic. The French supported one side and the English the other. Clive captures Arcot and the English emerge victorious. Mohammed Ali the Nawab of Arcot, became the undisputed leader. The Nawab of Arcot gifted Santhome to the English.
1752 -- Madras once again became of the seat of the Presidency.
1756 -- Period of hectic construction and reconstruction of the Fort, most of which remain today. Strengthening of the western front of the Fort and levelling of Hog Hill, the natural mound further west. King's Barracks built within the Fort to house the King's Regiment.
1757-58 -- Demolition of the old Town Temple. Building of the northern face of the Fort.
1758-59 -- The French, under Count Lally, unsuccessfully besieged Fort St. George.
1760 -- Removal of the remaining parts of old Black town that was destroyed by the French in 1746-49 by the English, and creation of the Esplanade between the Fort walls and new location in George Town after the old Town Temple was demolished.
1767-72 -- Further strengthening of Fort St. George. Building of the 6 km long Black Town walls by Paul Benfield to protect the native residents of George Town. A small landscaped park called Madi Poonga now occupies a portion of this protected wall. The Grand Arsenal constructed within the Fort and the Armenian Church built on the site of the old cemetery.
1790 -- Fort Exchange established and built within the Fort by Free Merchants. It was later converted to Fort Museum in 1948.